NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter’s fifth flight was captured on May 7, 2021, by one of the navigation cameras aboard the agency’s Perseverance rover. This was the first time it flew to a new landing site.


The perseverance rover that is now settled on the planet Mars made by the USA:

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationPage Last Updated: May 10, 2021Page Editor: Sarah LoffNASA Official: Brian Dunbar


The perseverance robot on planet Mars

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The are are now 8.5 Years Time-lapse of Curiosity Rover Driving & Drilling on Mars [Front Camera View]:

This is a star planet that is about 300 million miles from our planet Earth:


World media


6th April, 2021:


The curiosity rover made in the USA


Curiosity is a car-sized Mars rover designed to explore the Gale crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.[2] Curiosity was launched from Cape Canaveral (CCAFS) on 26 November 2011, at 15:02:00 UTC and landed on Aeolis Palus inside Gale crater on Mars on 6 August 2012, 05:17:57 UTC.[5][6][9] The Bradbury Landing site was less than 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from the center of the rover's touchdown target after a 560 million km (350 million mi) journey.[10][11]

The rover's goals include an investigation of the Martian climate and geology, assessment of whether the selected field site inside Gale has ever offered environmental conditions favorable for microbial life (including investigation of the role of water), and planetary habitability studies in preparation for human exploration.[12][13]

In December 2012, Curiosity's two-year mission was extended indefinitely,[14] and on 5 August 2017, NASA celebrated the fifth anniversary of the Curiosity rover landing.[15][16] The rover is still operational, and as of April 6, 2021, Curiosity has been active on Mars for 3081 sols (3165 total days8 years, 243 days) since its landing (see current status).

The NASA/JPL Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity Project Team was awarded the 2012 Robert J. Collier Trophy by the National Aeronautic Association "In recognition of the extraordinary achievements of successfully landing Curiosity on Mars, advancing the nation's technological and engineering capabilities, and significantly improving humanity's understanding of ancient Martian habitable environments."[17] Curiosity's rover design serves as the basis for NA




NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity NASA photo posted on SpaceFlight Insider

Curiosity has been on the surface of Mars since August of 2012. Photo Credit: NASA

Seven years after successfully completing a difficult landing maneuver onto the floor of Mars’ Gale Crater, NASA’s Curiosity rover continues to make pioneering discoveries on the Red Planet.

The rover landed in Gale Crater on Aug. 5, 2012. This location was chosen after NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) detected signals of clay at the site, a sign that lakes and streams flowed there billions of years ago. Its mission was to determine whether the planet was once habitable for microbial life, before its climate changed from warm and wet to cold and dry.

Curiosity‘s study of rocks within the 96-mile- (154-km-) wide Gale Crater confirmed it once hosted a network of lakes and streams that could have been habitable for as long as several hundred million years.  Over that time, clay minerals were left behind as a result of water interacting with sediment in those lakes and streams.

To date, the rover has traveled a total of 13 miles (21 km), where it studied a variety of terrains. In 2014, it began to climb Mount Sharp, a 3.4-mile (5.5 km) mountain that rises from the middle of Gale Crater.

Unlike NASA’s earlier, solar-powered rovers Spirit and Opportunity, which landed on Mars in 2004, Curiosity runs on nuclear power via a multimission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG), meaning it is far less vulnerable to dust storms, which can prevent solar-powered rovers from recharging, causing them to lose power.

Curiosity has been in an extended mission since its primary mission was completed within one Martian year, which equals approximately two Earth years.

Early in its travels within Gale Crater, the rover traveled over gravel and pebbles, terrain too small for drilling. Currently in a high-clay content region along Mount Sharp, the rover has since drilled into the crater’s surface 22 times, Although the drill ran into problems on several occasions, mission engineers successfully came up with innovative techniques to work around these problems.

Curiosity broke two of the raised treads, called grousers, on its left middle wheel in the first quarter of 2017. This included the one seen partially detached on the top of the wheel in this image from the rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on the rover's arm. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Curiosity broke two of the raised treads, called grousers, on its left middle wheel in the first quarter of 2017. This included the one seen partially detached on the top of the wheel in this image from the rover’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on the rover’s arm. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Since June of this year, Curiosity has been traversing more complex geological terrains, including “Strathdon,” an area made up of hardened sediment layers. Significantly different from the flatter, thinner layers the rover previously encountered, this region could have been shaped by a combination of both flowing water and wind.

At an outcrop named “Teal Ridge,” whose features also suggest a complex geological history, Curiosity captured a 360-degree panorama.

“We’re seeing an evolution in the ancient lake environment recorded in these rocks. It wasn’t just a static lake. It’s helping us move from a simplistic view of Mars going from wet to dry. Instead of a linear process, the history of water was more complicated,” stated Valerie Fox of Caltech, co-lead of Curiosity‘s clay unit campaign.

The rover is now exploring the clay-rich side of Mount Sharp initially detected by MRO from orbit. Drilled samples there have revealed some of the highest levels of clay minerals Curiosity has found on the Martian surface. However, in a mystery that continues to stump scientists, samples taken from other regions on Mount Sharp, where MRO did not detect large amounts of clay, show similarly high clay levels. One theory is that dust present on the latter, flatter terrain obscured clay signals there far more than it did on the former, which is covered in pebbles.

Recently, Curiosity detected high levels of methane in some parts of Gale Crater’s atmosphere. On Earth, atmospheric methane is produced largely through biological processes, especially by microbes. But methane can also be produced by geological processes, specifically, interaction between hot water and rock, so the presence of the gas does not amount to proof of life.

Curiosity has enough power remaining to operate for approximately another seven years and remains in good health.

Video courtesy of NASA / JPL





Laurel Kornfeld is an amateur astronomer and freelance writer from Highland Park, NJ, who enjoys writing about astronomy and planetary science. She studied journalism at Douglass College, Rutgers University, and earned a Graduate Certificate of Science from Swinburne University’s Astronomy Online program. Her writings have been published online in The Atlantic, Astronomy magazine’s guest blog section, the UK Space Conference, the 2009 IAU General Assembly newspaper, The Space Reporter, and newsletters of various astronomy clubs. She is a member of the Cranford, NJ-based Amateur Astronomers, Inc. Especially interested in the outer solar system, Laurel gave a brief presentation at the 2008 Great Planet Debate held at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab in Laurel, MD.





‘It did not obey the laws of physics’: Pilot who spotted famous Tic Tac UFO breaks silence after 15 years:

By the Independent
Colin Drury 

A US fighter pilot whose plane filmed the famous – and still unexplained – “tic tac” UFO footage has spoken for the first time about his close encounter.

Chad Underwood broke 15 years of silence on the subject, describing the object he recorded over the Pacific Ocean as “not behaving within the normal laws of physics”.

He said: “It was going from like 50,000 feet to 100 feet in like seconds, which is not possible.”

The tic tac – so-called because of its rounded shape and white colour – was caught on video as the US Navy attempted to identify a series of objects spotted on radar flying off America’s west coast in November 2004.

The authenticity of the film – which was first made public in 2017 – was finally confirmed by the Pentagon earlier this year. Officials said they still had no idea what the recorded object was. Weather phenomenon, manmade craft and birds have all been ruled out.




Provided by The Independent

Speaking to the New York Magazine, Mr Underwood said: “The thing that stood out to me the most was how erratic it was behaving. And what I mean by erratic is that its changes in altitude, air speed, and aspect were just unlike things that I’ve ever encountered before flying against other air targets.

“It was just behaving in ways that aren’t physically normal. That’s what caught my eye. Because, aircraft, whether they’re manned or unmanned, still have to obey the laws of physics. They have to have some source of lift, some source of propulsion. The tic tac was not doing that.”

And he added: “You’re up there flying, like, ‘Okay. It’s not behaving in a manner that’s predictable or is normal by how flying objects physically move’.”

The sighting came during a fortnight in which the USS Princeton had noted unknown aircraft intermittently passing across its radar systems off the US west coast. The contact was considered so inexplicable that the system was shut down and restarted to check for bugs — but operators continued to track the mysterious object afterwards.

Then on 14 November, Commander David Fravor was flying a mission off the USS Nimitz when he eyeballed the object. It seemed, he later said, to dive below the water, resurface, and speed out of sight when he approached.

As Fravor landed, he told Underwood – just preparing to take off on his own mission – to be aware of unusual activity.

Gallery: How Area 51 became ground zero for UFO sightings (INSIDER)



“Dave Fravor was like, ‘Hey, dude. BOLO,’ like, be on the lookout for just something weird,” Underwood said in his interview published on Thursday. “So, we go out to where our designated training area is. We’re not necessarily looking for something, but the Princeton had a specific object that they wanted us to hunt, for lack of a better word. And all of a sudden, I got this blip on my radar.”

He said he did not see the object with his own eyes because he was focused on capturing video footage for intelligence to analyse later.

But he added: “The thing that was the most interesting to me [was] how erratic this thing was. If it was obeying physics like a normal object that you would encounter in the sky – an aircraft, or a cruise missile, or some sort of special project that the government didn’t tell you about – that would have made more sense to me. The part that drew our attention was how it wasn’t behaving within the normal laws of physics.”

Unusually, he was never fully debriefed on his sighting but had to take a phone call about the incident so soon after landing, he was still in his flight gear at the time.

“Probably within about 20 minutes or so, I spoke to someone that I assume was from NORAD [North American Aerospace Defense Command],” he revealed. “I have no idea like what level up to who I was talking to. I just wanted to answer them. I was just basically handed a telephone and said, ‘Hey, answer these questions’.”

In the 15 years since, he said he has not speculated on what it might have been and had not previously given interviews because he did not want his name “attached to the ‘little green men’ crazies that are out there.”

He added: “I do not want to be part of that community. It is just what we call a UFO. I couldn’t identify it. It was flying. And it was an object. It’s as simple as that. I’ll let the nerds, like, do the math on what it was likely to be. I just happened to be the person that brought back the video.”