In Rwanda, the present-day Bugesera District was formerly Kanzenze, Ngenda and Gashora communes and has the biggest number of genocide memorials:
Published : 13 March, 2019 

This is the historical commemoration at the part of the swamp where thousands of Tutsi were killed during the Genocide between April and May 1994. Kelly Rwamapera.

At one end of five-hectares of eucalyptus trees in Ntarama Sector is a memorial for victims of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi who were killed in a papyrus thicket on the banks of River Akanyaru.

There are no bodies buried inside the memorial because they all perished in the marshland, part of a deep thick swamp that runs around Bugesera District where water reeds flourish.

For a month, Tutsis hid under mud and water in the swamps while the  militia and military who feared drowning, flanked hillsides, shooting and stoning their victims in the swamp.

GAERG, a graduate Genocide survivors association is yet to enumerate all the completely wiped out families in Bugesera District, but almost every survivor knows a family that was wiped out, mainly from this swamp.

While the number of the Genocide victims who were killed in the swamps around Bugesera is still unknown, at this particular place over 900 victims are named on four remembrance walls and more are yet to be added, according to Patrick Kalinda the president of Ibuka Ntarama Sector.

Some of the families that were completely wiped out valiantly resisted advancing  militias who wanted to kill them.

The brave men took their spears, bows and arrows and set up outposts to block them since April 7, 1994 until the ex-FAR army opened fire on them on April 14, 1994.

Among the men at the forefront who were killed with all their families were Eustache Rwabukambiza, Raphael Ntambara, Nteziryayo and Mureganshuro among many others.

Rwabukambiza lived at Cyugaro, Rugunga Cell Ntarama Sector.

His family, including his father Andrew Bugwiza, had been forcefully displaced from the Northern Province in the areas around Gakenke District and settled in Bugesera in 1959.

Alphonse Murengezi, who was fourteen and to whom Rwabukambiza was a maternal uncle, tells a story of how he stood at the front with his bow to resist the Interahamwe from invading Ntarama.

“He had 10 children and his wife was among the women who were piling stones near the men’s outposts that they would also use to defend themselves,” Murengezi said.

On April 14, 1994 the Interahamweadvanced with the army.

Rwabukambiza and his fellow defenders of Ntarama asked their wives and children to run into the swamp as they shielded them.

The stones and arrows were a futile to bullets and grenades. Rwabukambiza and hundreds others were finally killed at Butera, between the infamous church where thousands were killed and the swamp where most Tutsis fled to.

Murengezi said that Rwabukambiza’s wife and the 10 children entered the swamp, made it to the other side in Gitarama (in Southern Province) where most drowned after they were met by killers on the banks.

“Rwabukambiza’s family was with my family. When we emerged from the swamp on the other side at Gitarama, we were attacked by the waiting Interahamwe. They all drowned including four of my siblings and my mother,” he said.

Killing two generations at ago

The family of Nteziryayo and his family of seven children and a wife were killed along with the family of his father, Sehene.

Sehene and his wife had two children (Nteziryayo and his sister).

Apart from Nteziryayo who was killed before they fled to marshland, the rest of Sehene and Nteziryayo’s family died in resistance in the swamp.

The closest survivor in this family is Edith Nyiramana whose father Vianney Hitimana (who also was killed) was a nephew to Nteziryayo and a son to Nteziryayo’s sister Mukankuriza.

Nyiramana 44 said “Nteziryayo was a teacher at Groupe Scolaire Kibungo (in Ntarama). He was famous and was taken so early before a resistance grew stronger”

After the killings at Butera, Nyiramana and the family of Nteziryayo fled to Rufunzo.

“We were as a family in the marshland. We all had grave injuries. We used to sneak out into our house when the Interahamwe had gone for lunch and get cassava flour and butter which we could mix to make medicine for injuries,” Nyiramana recalled.

Unfortunately, they were displaced in the swamp by bullets. Nyiramana found herself alone. She doesn’t know how others died but none survived.

Mureganshuro’s family comprised of four children and the wife. They were killed in an attack at Kariyeri at the main road to Nyamata town. He was a resident at Kibungo in Ntarama.

The present-day Bugesera District was formerly Kanzenze, Ngenda and Gashora communes and has the biggest number of genocide memorials.

There’re six of them including Ntarama which has more than 5,000 remains buried there.

In 1959-60s Tutsis were displaced from all over the country, especially the Northern and Southern Provinces and dumped in Bugesera. At that time it was infested by tsetse flies hoping for the worst.


Someone need to take these genocide against Tutsis with a pinch of salt. while you suppose HUTUs were killing TUTSIs what was the massive strong TUTSI army with guns and vehicles doing in its trail where they passed. Bodies floating on the lake came from areas already captured by the TUTSI army is it that they captured territory and let HUTUs massacre TUTSIs?

One may want to say that the TUTSI army were not out to revenge in any way but the story of eastern Congo and M23 tells a different story because its shown who set up death traps and camps for freeing HUTU refugees.

Lets talk about genocide in Rwanda and not make it against TUTSIs by HUTUs as it portrayed all over.


Interestingly in Kigali being called a ''Ka Hutwe'' (forgive my Ugandan spelling) is derogatory. The benefactors of a war can never write a fair history text boot, we can only read their memoirs and their opinion.








In the African country of Uganda, the public debt has gone up to 22%. In local currency that is Shs 41.5 trillion:

4th January, 2019

Written by URN

Finance minister Matia Kasaija

The Finance Minister, Mr Matia Kasaija


Uganda's public debt has increased by 22 per cent, rising from Shs 33.99 trillion as at June 30, 2017, to Shs 41.51 trillion as at June 30, 2018, according to the 2018 auditor general's report released today.

Handing over the report to the speaker of parliament Rebecca Kadaga, the auditor general John Muwanga said that payment for loans worth Shs 3.9 trillion which are 50 per cent of those he has studied, expires in 2020.

Muwanga said that if the government is to service the loans as projected in the next financial year 2019/2020, it would require more than 65 per cent of the total revenue collections which is over and above the sustainability levels of 40 per cent.

"Although Uganda's debt to GDP ratio of 41 per cent is still below the International Monetary Fund (IMF) risky threshold of 50 per cent and compares well with other East African countries, it is unfavorable when debt payment is compared to national revenue collected which is the highest in the region at 54 percent", reads the summary of the audit report.

He noted that the interest payments on domestic and external debt during the financial year 2017/2018 amounted to Shs 2.34 trillion, 17 per cent of the total revenue collections, which is above the limit set in Public Debt Management Framework, 2013 of 15 per cent.

"Although absorption of external debt has improved compared to last financial year, I noted some loans with absorption levels as low as 10 per cent and below. An example is the USMID project with over Shs 95 billion (95 per cent) still on the various accounts of Municipal Councils by close of the year, despite various incomplete and abandoned works due to non-payment to contractors," further reads the summary report.

Another project cited by the auditor general is the Mbarara-Nkenda and Tororo-Lira transmission line, which, he said has delayed for almost 8 years - resulting into the cancellation of the loan by the funder with a disbursed loan amount of $6.5 million.

Muwanga also noted that significant value loans have stringent conditions which could have adverse effects on Uganda's ability to sustain its debt.

He says that conditions include a waiver of sovereign immunity by the government over all its properties and itself from enforcement of any form of judgment, adoption of foreign laws in any proceedings to enforce agreements, requiring the government to pay all legal fees and insurance premiums on behalf of the creditor.

Keto Nyapendi Kayemba, the deputy auditor general said that their office carried out a special audit on public debt management saying that it is worrying. She said that the government needs to pay more attention to the the country’s indebtedness.

”The revenue to GDP is actually standing at 55% which is the highest in the region. We did a special audit on public debt and we expect you to look at it in detail and see the issues that we’re raising. We have concerns about the sustainability of debt, it is currently still sustainable, but if we go at the rate at which we’re going, we need to be careful. And there issues there that really need addressing. We’re taking in more commercial loans, we’re taking in more loans whose conditionalities are probably not very conducive for us as a development country." she said.






The United Nations High Commissioner for refugees and the Office of the Prime Minister of Uganda have admitted corruption and fraud over funds given to refugees:

4 December, 2018

Written by The Observer Team

Expensive UN vehicles making tours in war conflict zones around the world.


A United Nations internal audit has revealed gross corruption and mismanagement of funds meant for the refugees in Uganda.

Uganda has been widely recognised for its open arms refugee policy but at the centre of a massive corruption scandal and mismanagement is; the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), the major agencies managing refugees in the country. 

The audit carried out by the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) between January and May 2018 covered the period between July 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017. The audit report released on November 28 has made a number of recommendations; including recovery of several misappropriated funds, review of UNHCR management, corruption and fraud mechanisms, review of UN’s dealings with government on projects implementation among others.


UNHCR which spent at least £161 million in Uganda last year according to the audit report, has been essentially accused of colluding with the OPM officials to mismanage refugee funds. Among the discoveries unearthed by the audit, is the handing of $320,000 (about Shs 1.2bn) to OPM to buy land for refugee registration activities yet the government’s own valuation was at about Shs 520m.


After approval by UNHCR, OPM procured a plot of land adjacent to its office for $320,000. According to UNHCR, the reason for the purchase was to expand the OPM office for refugee registration activities; however, at the time of the audit, the land was being used as a vehicle parking lot.

The auditors concluded that the price paid for the “land was inordinately high” since the government’s own valuer had valued the plot at just $140,000 (Shs 520m). Similar sized plots in that area, the audit discovered ranged from $110,000 to $165,000.

When requested, OPM was not able to provide to UN auditors the title deed for the land to confirm its ownership, and UNHCR could not demonstrate that sufficient due diligence had been done prior to approving the purchase, such as a needs assessment. UNHCR headquarters was not consulted on this purchase.


While it’s against policy for the implementers not to derive direct economic benefits from the projects, OPM officials were receiving up to annual allowances of $24,000 (about Shs 89m) from the UNHCR project, and were provided with UNHCR vehicles and fuel allocations.

Such arrangements, the auditors note, gave rise to a conflict of interest. Prior, in 2016, an external auditor had raised similar concerns regarding fuel expenditures and recommended for the recovery of $250,000. These irregularities apparently continued into 2017.

The auditors discovered that the submitted fuel payment receipts were in exact sequential order from the same fuel pump signed by the same attendant, even though there were gaps of days between fuelling.

Also, none of the fuel requisitions were approved and there were no consumption reports to assess average fuel consumption rate per vehicle while the logbooks of vehicles were not always updated. Particularly, the UNHCR vehicles assigned to OPM recorded excessive fuel usage.

The auditors discovered that OPM paid monthly allowances to 72 possible ‘ghost’ civil servants totalling $283,000 (Shs 1bn) annually. There was no provided documentation to the auditors to substantiate that these civil servants were working on UNHCR projects, as there were no staff contracts, terms of reference or time sheets.

OPM also paid some temporary labourers $147,000 (Shs 547m) in cash in 2017 but the OISO says it was not clear who had paid the cash and whether receipt was witnessed. UNHCR recorded an expenditure of $211 million in 2017 compared to $129 million spent in 2016 working with 40 partners.

According to the audit report, UNHCR designated up to $31.2 million in 2017 to 31 partners, mainly in the areas of construction, fuel, water trucking, medicines and services.

However the auditors noted that the agency “did not conduct a cost-benefit analysis or an assessment of the capacity of partners to conduct procurement prior to delegating it to them, as required by UNHCR procedures. The agency also did not implement adequate monitoring and management oversight at different levels to ensure compliance with UNHCR procedures.”

As such, the auditors note, due to this weak monitoring, an unnamed partner approved payments totalling $400,000 to a vendor using supporting document rather than original copies for the construction of communal latrines and temporary waiting shelters.

As a result, the audit found out that the costs were inflated by $63,000 for the procured items in comparison to was available in the market. Even after the discovery of this financial loss, the audit report notes that no action was taken against the vendor.

In Adjumani, late November, the performance monitoring team concluded that 7 of 10 project activities for all partners were either partially implemented or not implemented, and recommended that the project budget for one partner be reduced. No action was taken to address the underperformance and reduce the budget at this partner.

The auditors discovered an over payment for water trucking vendor of over overpayment of $7.7 million out of the $27 million paid to vendors.


Despite UNHCR’s persistent efforts, OPM did not provide the agency access to registration data for almost three years up to the beginning of 2018 which affected programming, distribution of assistance, resettlement processing, case management, and planning of cash-based interventions, the audit notes. 

According to the audit, throughout 2017, information on weaknesses and allegations of irregularities in the OPM registration information were increasing from partners, the World Food Programme and key donors in Uganda, who all questioned the reliability of the registered refugee numbers.

“At all levels and for a number of years, UNHCR was fully aware of the key weaknesses in the registration process and its system, and associated risks.” reads the audit. 


The UN auditors were generally satisfied with the construction of classrooms, dormitories and staff accommodation but discovered serious flaws in the construction of roads in refugee settlements. The unnamed UNHCR logistics partner was given a budget of $7.9 million in 2017 for road construction projects totalling 1,226km in West Nile refugee settlements.

While the roads construction was selected by UNHCR due to the bidder's lowest price in the bidding process, the company lacked experience in road construction and resorted to hiring road construction equipment. Due to the contractors inexperience the contractor ended up hiring equipment at the wrong stages which turned out to be expensive.

By February 2018, 15,000 solar lamps worth $279,860 and 29,525 sanitary pads worth $10,248 were missing from one distribution point in Adjumani. 


In a statement, UNHCR admits to “clear gaps and weaknesses in risk management in a number of areas” during the period between July 2016 and December 2017.

“UNHCR worked closely with the OIOS auditors, who came to Uganda in February 2018, identifying issues and providing information that was used in the audit. We have accepted the recommendations of the OIOS auditors and have been working to address them well before this report was issued on 27 November, including in conjunction with Uganda’s Office of the Prime Minister.” the statement said.

UNHCR statement further said they had taken measures including revision of refugee registration, relief distribution, risk management among other interventions.


Its great that these people are starting to get exposed. They live lavishly on the back of tax payers from other countries without working a day in their lives. 

All the donors should come down hard on them, they have gotten away with it for too long.

The implication right from the start of the refugees of Palestine 1949 to the current ones of 2018 is enough time to expose the UNHCR as an institution well equiped to make lots of money out of war conflicts around our beautiful blue planet.






Hundreds of migrants are stranded in Libyan camps without food due to the civil war in Libya:

Hundreds of migrants stranded in Libyan camps without food due to fighting – reports
Men, women and children younger than five seeking to reach Europe have been reportedly abandoned without any food or water in the government-controlled camps in the Libyan capital as Tripoli once again plunged into chaos.

The guards stationed at the centers, which mainly host people intercepted by the Libyan coast guard as they tried to reach Europe by sea, fled over the weekend due to the intensified fighting between the rival groups in Tripoli, leaving the migrants and asylum seekers to their fate with no means of survival, Reuters reports, citing sources on the ground.

FILE PHOTO © Alessandro Fucarini

Hundreds of people were left behind only in one such government-run facility called Ain Zara and located in the southern part of the Libyan capital, one aid worker told Reuters on condition of anonymity.

"There are about 400 people locked in the Ain Zara detention center, among them 200 men and 200 women and 20 children under five years without food and water," the source said.

The exact number of people stranded in the abandoned Libyan camps is unknown, Reuters reports, adding that another source said that some 1,500 were trapped in another three detention centers. Some of them later fled while others were reportedly transferred to other facilities.

Torture, human trafficking and abuse have become the appalling reality of fractured Libya ever since NATO intervention and the fall of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's government in 2011 plunged the “liberated” country into lawlessness and chaos. The issue caught attention of the media back in 2017, when a CNN report documented an alleged live slave auction in Libya, where African citizens were sold off for as little as $400.


FILE PHOTO © Alessandro Fucarini
Most of the refugees are young people

On Tuesday, the UN migration agency said that migrants, who were recently rejected by Italy in a standoff with the European Union, had been held by smugglers in Libya for some two years before eventually allowing to set out for Europe. During that period, these people were subjected to various forms of abuse, including rape, torture and beating, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) said, citing testimonies of the migrants themselves.

“In Libya they complained that many had been beaten and tortured by smugglers and traffickers seeking ransom money from their families in their countries of origin,” IOM spokesman Joel Millman said at a UN briefing in Geneva, adding that all migrants were malnourished and exhausted.

The conflict-torn nation, which saw rival parliaments and governments in the east and west come and go for years, has become a heaven for human traffickers and one of the major entry points to Europe, mostly for people from other African countries.  Local warlords and tribal militias control significant part of the Libyan territory, determining the daily lives of people with little regard to the central authority and making the security situation even direr.

Over the weekend, Tripoli witnessed a renewed escalation of violence between the two major militant groups controlling the city, even though both of them are formally loyal to the UN-backed Government of National Accord (GNA) formed back in 2016. On Monday, AP reported that fierce clashes between the rival militias left at least five people dead and 27 injured. The United Nations Support Mission in Libya has voiced concerns over "the use of indiscriminate fire and heavy weapons in densely populated residential areas."


Migrants arrive at a naval base after they were rescued by Libyan coastal guard in Tripoli, Libya November 24, 2017 © Reuters / Hani Amara

There is a human catastrophe in the making as refugees continue to migrate at this high rate


At least some European countries are apparently determined to make Libya a cornerstone of their new policy aimed at stemming the migration inflow to Europe. Italy in particular made a deal with Libya’s GNA back in 2017, which envisaged using EU funds to train and equip the Libyan forces to patrol its coasts and bring migrants back, effectively subcontracting their rescue to the Libyan coastguard.

Italian government also repeatedly supplied Libya with boats to help it “fight human trafficking” and curb the flow of migrants into Europe. At some point, an Italian-flagged ship transported 108 migrants rescued at sea back to Libya in an event that drew attention of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Italy as the UN agency looked into possible violations of international law linked to the actions of the Italian vessel.

Europe also has recently devised a plan to limit the number of new arrivals by creating refugee centers in North African states. However, this plan soon wrecked on reality as GNA leader Fayez al-Sarraj said that his country would never take back asylum seekers rejected in the EU, nor will it agree to build refugee centers on its soil, even if such a deal would involve financial assistance from Europe.